Empirical evidence, primarily from social psychological research, is presented to illuminate the layperson’s judgments of responsibility. Among the differentiations examined are effort versus ability as causes of achievement performance, causal versus outcome evaluation, biologically- versus behaviorally-based stigmas, stigma onset versus stigma offset, welfare recipients versus the poor, and retributive versus utilitarian punishment goals. Finally, the determinants of being judged a moral person are considered.
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