International Journal of Existential Positive Psychology

Lost in the Translation: “Chi” and Related Terms of Shame in the Confucian Tradition

Louise Sundararajan, PhD, EdD


Shame is a negative emotion, of which the Chinese seem to have an especially large repertoire, which serves to capitalize on conformity and adherence to group norms, so we are told in numerous cross cultural studies. A close examination of the language game based on chi and related terms suggests a more nuanced story.

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